Guyabano is a small tree, usually less than 7 meters high. Leaves are smooth, glossy, shiny, oblong-obovate to oblong, 7 to 20 centimeters in length, pointed on both ends, with petioles about 5 millimeters long. Flower is solitary, large, solitary, yellow or greenish-yellow. Three outer petals are broadly ovate with a heart-shaped base, up to 5 centimeters long, and 3 centimeters wide; and the inner three are also large, elliptic to obovate, and rounded. Fruit is ovoid and large, up to 18 centimeters long, covered with small scattered, soft spinelike processes. Skin is thin, and the pulp is soft, rather fibrous, white, and fleshy, with an agreeable, but rather sour flavor.
– Cultivated for its edible fruit.
– Prevalent in the rain forests of Africa, South America, and Southeast Asia.
- Studies yielded tannins, steroids and cardiac glycosides as major phytochemical compounds.
- Alcoholic extract of leaves, when distilled with steam, yielded a small amount of essential oil with a strong, somewhat agreeable odor.
- The extract also yielded a dark-green resin containing: myricyl alcohol, sitosterol, fatty acids (oleic, linoleic, and stearic acids, together with a higher fatty acid, possibly lignoceric acid) and a diphydric alcohol, anonol.
- Flesh of fruit contains saccharose 2.53%, dextrose 5.05 percent, and levulose 0.04%.
- Bark yielded an amorphous alkaloid, found to be poisonous, causing tetanus-like convulsions when injected to mice.
- Seed contains a nonpoisonous alkaloid.
- Recent studies isolated three acetogenins: annonacin, annonacin A and annomuricin A.
- Stem bark yielded one acetogenin, solamin and two triterpenoids, stigmasterol and sitosterol.
- Study yielded two new acetogenins, muricatalicin (1) and muricatalin (VI), a mesitoate of a new acetogenin, annonacin-B mesitoate (Vb) and three known acetogenins, annonacin (II), annonacin-A (III) and annonacin-10-one (IV). (see study below) (9)
- Study isolated sterols: β-sitosterone (1), β-sitosteryl fatty acid ester (2) and β-sitosterol (3); and the triterpenes: α-amyrin (4), β-amyrin (5) and squalene (6) from the dichloromethane extract of the freeze-dried fruit of Annona muricata Linn. (See study below) (18)
- Dichloromethane extract of seeds yielded annoreticuin-9-one (1) while fruit flesh yielded cis-annoreticuin (2) and sabadelin (3). (see study below) (26)
- Seeds yield lactones, annomonicina, annomontacina, annonacina, annomuricatina, annonacinona, javoricina, among others. (29)
- Leaf oil yielded 59 compounds. Main components were ß-caryophyllene (31.4%), δ-cadinene (6.7%), α-muurolene (5.5%), T- and α-cadinols (4.3%). (29)
- Nutrient analysis of pulp and drink yielded a carbohydrate content 72.71% and 83.47%, fiber 6.26% and 3.47%, retinol 192.50 IU and 63.76 IU, ascorbic acid 22.59 mg/110g and 34.71 mg/100 g, flavonoids 9.32 and 5.24 mg/100 g, and tannin 65.98 and 53.96 mg/100 g. (see study below) (32)
- Study of aqueous and methanol leaf extracts yielded carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids, fats and fatty acids, steroids, flavonoid, tannin and phenolic compounds, saponins, and cardiac glycosides. The aqueous extract yielded anthraquinone glycoside, coumarin glycoside, and terpenoids. The methanol extract yielded alkaloids. (see study below) (44)
- Study of freeze-dried seeds of A. muricata isolated murisolin (1), annoreticuin-9-one (2), cis- annoreticuin (3), sabadelin (4), ß-sitosterol (5), stigmasterol (6), and triglyceride (7); the fruits yielded constituents 2-7. (see study below) (46)
- Study of fruit juice of soursop for trace elements (concentration PPP at µg/ml) yielded boron (B) 20.22, zinc (Zn) 0.688, iron (Fe) 0.264, manganese (Mn) 0.217, copper (Cu) 0.19, lead (Pb) 0.13, cadmium (Cd) 0.0872, nickel (Ni) 0.074, cobalt (Co) 0.05, selenium (Se) 0.0001. (50)
– Study of seeds yielded seven new annonaceous acetogenins, muricins A-G (1-7), as well as five known compounds, a mixture of muricatetrocinA( (8), and muricatetrocin B (9), longifolicin (10), coroddolin (11), and corossolone (12). (see study below) (35)
– The fruit is reported as antiscorbutic and astringent.
– Flowers are pectoral.
– Leaves are antispasmodic.
– Seeds are emetic.
– The infusion of leaves is sudorific.
– Recent studies suggest a potential for antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, antiparasitic, antileishmanial, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, antihyperglycemic, hypotensive, immune-enhancing, and anti-cancer properties.
Guyabano is a potential crop with varied economic uses. The nature green fruits are used as a vegetable and for making sweet meats, while the ripe one is eaten off hand or as dessert. Its juice is used for flavoring ice cream, sherbets, canning and for preparation of refreshing drinks. It may also be processed intro preserve, candies, jam and jelly. Guyabano also posses some medicinal properties. The trees maybe used for landscaping and for shade.
The guyabano fruit is used as a cure for cough, scurvy and fever. It contains
Vitamin A, calcium, phosphorous and rich with vitamin B and C. It also contains
11.62 percent sugar, mostly glucose and fructose.
The green fruits and seeds can induce vomiting, remedy dysentery and arrest
secretion or bleeding. The sap of the young leaves may be applied directly on
pimples to induce suppuration. The sap is also considered parasiticidal. An
alcoholic extract of the leaves, when distilled with steam, yields a small amount
of essential oil. The portion of alcoholic extract which is soluble in water contains
a large amount of potassium chloride together with dextrose tannis, amorphous
products, and a small amount of an alkaloid substance which could not be
crystallized. The leaves and roots also cure colic and convulsions.
Culture and Management
The soursop is adapted to areas of high humidity and relatively warm temperature; temperatures below 5 °C (41 °F) will cause damage to leaves and small branches, and temperatures below 3 °C (37 °F)
Soil and Climatic requirements
The plant grows in any kind of soil, but a fairly deep, friable soil of volcanic
origin is conducive to growth and fruiting. It grows better on soil with pH ranges
6.1 to 6.5. It thrives very well from sea level up to 500 meters above sea level. It
is best to plant them at the start of the rainy season.
Guyabano is usually propagated by seeds. However, selected trees of
inherent characters may also be propagated asexually by marcotting, inarching,
grafting and budding.
As for guyabano nutrition facts:
- Calories: 66
- Protein: 1 gram
- Carbs: 16.8 grams
- Fiber: 3.3 grams
- Vitamin C: 34% of the RDI
- Potassium: 8% of the RDI
- Magnesium: 5% of the RDI
- Thiamine: 5% of the RDI
Soursop also contains a small amount of niacin, riboflavin, folate and iron.